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    • Dr.Saied Malihialzackerini

      Forum Guidline .......... راهنمای استفاده از تالار گفتگوی روان شناسی سیمیا   ۱۷/۰۹/۰۱

      Our guidelines for Symia Psychology & counseling Forums - SPCF. We welcomes contributions which are original, innovative, authoritative and of interest to the membership of the virtual association. It's also a great way for you to share your knowledge and help others. We aim to publish a variety of contributions ranging from personal reflections on psychological practice to critiques of current topics, innovations in service development, and audit and research studies.We also publish correspondence either regarding articles published within SPCF or around issues of general interest to the membership. We value your contributions to our site and encourage you to use our forums to interact with other members! We also want to make sure that SPCF is a safe and trustworthy source for our global community. Articles submitted to SPCF will be sent to members of the editorial collective for refereeing.Overall, articles must be relevant and of interest to the profession Articles of 1000-2500 words including references are welcomed. If you feel an article longer than 2500 words is justified please state the reasons in an accompanying letter and these will be considered by the reviewer. To help us with this goal please ensure your posts are: Friendly To maintain a safe, friendly environment on our forums, we ask our members to limit their comments to courteous and respectful language at all times. Any posts that include sexually explicit comments, hate-speech, prejudiced remarks, or profanity will be removed. We also reject posts that advocate or describe participation in illegal activities and those containing graphic descriptions of death, injuries or violent criminal acts. We only publish posts written by our members . Relevant to psychologists Keep your forum posts relevant and helpful to psychologists. Please don’t include personally insulting language, smear campaigns, or any personal opinions about political, ethical, religious, or wider social issues. If you have a question or comment for SPCF about our forums moderation policies or there is an issue with your account, you can contact us. Non-commercial SPCF association is intended to provide advice for psychologists. Posts that are being offered in exchange for personal gain, such as gifts, services, or money, will be removed. We reserve the right to reject specific content for any reason. Links to external websites, such as advertising sites or personal blogs, that are not relevant to the topic and are used purely for promotional purposes will be removed. We reserve the right to reject any URL for any reason. Survey requests, polls, or requests for research, as well as any spam will also be removed. If you suspect a post is fraudulent, please use contact us to submit your report. SPCF reserves the right to remove any content (links, text, or images) we deem inappropriate. If any member violates any of the above guidelines, we reserve the right to ban the individual from further participation in the SPCF Community.                راهنمای ثبت نام  و استفاده از تالار گفتگوی انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا تالار گفتگو کاربران گرامی سایت انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا تقاضا می شود قبل از ورود به صفحه تالار گفتگو، متن زیر را به دقت مطالعه نمایند. برای فعالیت در تالار گفتگوی انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا ابتدا باید عضو سایت شده و یا درصورت ثبت نام وارد سایت شوید. نحوۀ عضویت در تالار گفتگوی انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا برای استفاده از تالارهای گفتگوی انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا، ابتدا باید عضو سایت اصلی انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا شوید.( چنانچه قبلا در سایت ثبت نام کرده اید، نیازی به ثبت نام مجدد جهت استفاده از تالار گفتگو وجود ندارد و با همان نام کاربری و رمز عبور سایت اصلی می توانید به تالار گفتگو وارد شوید.) 1-   روی دکمه ثبت نام در نوار مشکی سمت چپ بالای صفحه انجمن کلیک کنید 2-   فرم ثبت نام را تکمیل کنید a.     ادرس ایمیل خود را به انگلیسی و دقیق بنویسید b.     یک کلمه عبور (رمز) دلخواه تعریف کنید c.      مقطع تحصیلی فعلی را در میزان تحصیلات وارد کنید d.     سایر خانه ها را تکمیل کنید.   3-   پس از حداکثر چند دقیقه یک نامه جهت تأئید شما به ایمیل تان ارسال می شود. دقت کنید اگر ایمیلی نیامد (بطور قطع ایمیل را اشتباه نوشته اید) وبا دفتر انجمن تماس بگیرید . 4-   حداکثر دو روز بعد از ثبت نام ، نامه ای از مدیر سایت برای شما ارسال می شود که ثبت نام شما تأئید شده و می توانید بعنوان کاربر وارد سایت شوید. راهنمای استفاده از تالار گفتگوی انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا جهت ورود به تالار گفتگو، بر روی عبارت سفید رنگ «وارد شوید» در بالای سمت چپ تمامی صفحات سایت کلیک کنید .  سپس با کلیک بر روی لینک مربوط به خود وارد تالار مورد نظر شوید.   در صفحه باز شده فهرست تمامی انجمنهای موجود را ملاحظه می کنید که به تفکیک مقاطع تحصیلی و گروههای درسی قرار گرفته است. هریک از کاربران به تناسب مقطع و گروه تحصیلی خود وارد تالار مورد نظر خود شوند. کاربران می توانند سوالات خود را در هر زمینه ای مربوط به تالار خود بیان کنند و یا به سایر سوالات سایر کاربران پاسخ دهند. لازم به ذکر است که تمامی فعالیتهای کاربران پس از تأیید مدیر سایت انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا نمایش داده خواهد شد و پس از ایجاد بحث و یا پاسخ به بحثی توسط کاربران، بلافاصله بحث و پاسخ مربوطه نمایش داده نخواهد شد. این اطمینان به تمامی کاربران داده خواهد شد که در کمترین زمان ممکن به تأیید فعالیتهای در چارچوب قوانین انجمن اقدام خواهد شد. آشنایی با ایجاد پرسش و پاسخ در تالارهای گفتگوی انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا
      قبل از ورود به سایت، کاربران تنها قادر به مطالعه پرسش و پاسخها خواهند بود.
      کاربرانی که عضو سایت شده و با وارد کردن نام کاربری و رمز عبور خود ورود موفق به سایت داشته اند، قادر به فعالیت در تالار گفتگو خواهند بود.
      برای پاسخ و مشارکت در یک بحث موردنظر، کافیست به تالار و بحث مربوطه رفته و بروی دکمه پاسخ به بحث کلیک کنید و متن پیام خود را وارد کرده و برروی دکمه ارسال کنید. پاسخ شما پس از تأیید مدیریت سایت نمایش داده خواهد شد. امید است این تالارهای گفتگو نقش مفیدی در کمک به کاربران گرامی سایت انجمن روان شناسی سیمیا ایفا نماید. چهت دریافت راهنمای کاربری دوره ها و کارگاه های الکترونیکی مجازی فایل زیر را دریافت کنید.        E-LearningManual.pdf

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  1. The human microbiome, or gut environment, is a community of different bacteria that has co-evolved with humans to be beneficial to both a person and the bacteria. Researchers agree that a person’s unique microbiome is created within the first 1,000 days of life, but there are things you can do to alter your gut environment throughout your life Ultra-processed foods and gut health What we eat, especially foods that contain chemical additives and ultra-processed foods, affects our gut environment and increases our risk of diseases. Ultra-processed foods contain substances extracted from food (such as sugar and starch), added from food constituents (hydrogenated fats), or made in a laboratory (flavor enhancers, food colorings). It’s important to know that ultra-processed foods such as fast foods are manufactured to be extra tasty by the use of such ingredients or additives, and are cost effective to the consumer. These foods are very common in the typical Western diet. Some examples of processed foods are canned foods, sugar-coated dried fruits, and salted meat products. Some examples of ultra-processed foods are soda, sugary or savory packaged snack foods, packaged breads, buns and pastries, fish or chicken nuggets, and instant noodle soups. Researchers recommend “fixing the food first” (in other words, what we eat) before trying gut modifying-therapies (probiotics, prebiotics) to improve how we feel. They suggest eating whole foods and avoiding processed and ultra-processed foods that we know cause inflammation and disease. But what does my gut have to do with my mood? When we consider the connection between the brain and the gut, it’s important to know that 90% of serotonin receptors are located in the gut. In the relatively new field of nutritional psychiatry we help patients understand how gut health and diet can positively or negatively affect their mood. When someone is prescribed an antidepressant such as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the most common side effects are gut-related, and many people temporarily experience nausea, diarrhea, or gastrointestinal problems. There is anatomical and physiologic two-way communication between the gut and brain via the vagus nerve. The gut-brain axis offers us a greater understanding of the connection between diet and disease, including depression and anxiety. When the balance between the good and bad bacteria is disrupted, diseases may occur. Examples of such diseases include: irritable bowel disease (IBD), asthma, obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cognitive and mood problems. For example, IBD is caused by dysfunction in the interactions between microbes (bacteria), the gut lining, and the immune system. Diet and depression A recent study suggests that eating a healthy, balanced diet such as the Mediterranean diet and avoiding inflammation-producing foods may be protective against depression. Another study outlines an Antidepressant Food Scale, which lists 12 antidepressant nutrients related to the prevention and treatment of depression. Some of the foods containing these nutrients are oysters, mussels, salmon, watercress, spinach, romaine lettuce, cauliflower, and strawberries. A better diet can help, but it’s only one part of treatment. It’s important to note that just like you cannot exercise out of a bad diet, you also cannot eat your way out of feeling depressed or anxious. We should be careful about using food as the only treatment for mood, and when we talk about mood problems we are referring to mild and moderate forms of depression and anxiety. In other words, food is not going to impact serious forms of depression and thoughts of suicide, and it is important to seek treatment in an emergency room or contact your doctor if you are experiencing thoughts about harming yourself. Suggestions for a healthier gut and improved mood Eat whole foods and avoid packaged or processed foods, which are high in unwanted food additives and preservatives that disrupt the healthy bacteria in the gut. Instead of vegetable or fruit juice, consider increasing your intake of fresh fruits and vegetables. Frozen fruits without added sugars/additives are a good choice too. Eat enough fiber and include whole grains and legumes in your diet. Include probiotic-rich foods such as plain yogurt without added sugars. To reduce sugar intake at breakfast, add cinnamon to plain yogurt with berries, or to oatmeal or chia pudding. Adding fermented foods such as kefir (unsweetened), sauerkraut, or kimchi can be helpful to maintain a healthy gut. Eat a balance of seafoods and lean poultry, and less red meat each week. Add a range of colorful fresh fruits and vegetables to your diet, and consider choosing certain organic produce. http://www.health.harvard.edu
  2. How to get more probiotics There are two ways to get more good bacteria into your gut: fermented foods and dietary supplements. Fermented foods are the best source, as probiotic supplements, which are typically sold over the counter, are reserved to treat specific ailments as suggested by your doctor, and not recommended for everyday use. Plus, supplements do not have the same FDA oversight as medications do. So, a big question remains: How many probiotic foods do you need? That's not easy to answer. There is no recommended daily intake for probiotics, so there is no way to know exactly which fermented foods or what quantity is best. Therefore, the general guideline is to just add as many fermented foods to your daily diet as possible. Why fermented foods? Fermenting is one of the oldest techniques for food preservation. Mankind has been fermenting foods and drinks like beer and wine for centuries. Foods that are fermented go through a process of lactofermentation in which natural bacteria feed on the sugar and starch in the food, creating lactic acid. This process creates an environment that preserves the food and promotes beneficial enzymes, B vitamins, and omega-3 fatty acids, as well as various species of good bacteria. Another way to look at fermentation is that it takes one type of food and transforms it into another kind. For instance, cabbage becomes sauerkraut, cucumbers become pickles, soybeans turn into miso, and milk can be made into yogurt, cheeses, and sour cream. Not all fermented foods contain probiotics. Some foods undergo steps that remove the probiotics, as with beer or wine, or make them inactive, like baking and canning. However, most fermented foods are probiotic foods as well. If there is a potential downside to fermented foods, it is that their taste and smell can be quite strong, which may be unpleasant for some people. The unique flavors and textures of fermented foods are due in part to the different species of bacteria used. On the upside, there are many types of fermented foods from which to choose, so there is a good chance you can find something you will enjoy. The most common fermented foods that naturally contain probiotics, or have probiotics added to them, include yogurt, kefir, kombucha, sauerkraut, pickles, miso, tempeh, kimchi, sourdough bread and some cheeses. Yogurt is considered the most valuable player of probiotic foods because it has a flavor and texture that's generally appealing to Western palates. The number and type of bacteria species can vary depending on the yogurt brand. The probiotic content of yogurt products can range from 90 billion to 500 billion CFU per serving. (CFU stands for colony- forming units, which is how many bacteria are able to divide and form colonies.) Look for the words "live and active cultures" on the label. How to use: Yogurt is easy to add to your diet. Besides having it for breakfast or a midday snack, you can substitute yogurt whenever you use mayonnaise in egg salad or potato salad, or in almost any baking recipe. Yogurt also can be the basis for sauces, salad dressings, or marinade http://www.health.harvard.edu
  3. Arthritis is a painful problem that can interfere with your ability to do the things you enjoy. But you can take steps to protect your joints, reduce discomfort, and improve mobility.l Physical or occupational therapists can be very helpful in teaching you how to modify activities and accomplish daily tasks more easily. But there are simple things you can do for yourself, starting today. Here are five of them:t Keep moving. Avoid holding one position for too long. When working at a desk, for example, get up and stretch.every 15 minutes. Do the same while sitting at home reading or watching television Discover your strength. Put your strongest joints and muscles to work. To protect finger and wrist joints, push open heavy doors with the side of your arm or shoulder. To reduce hip or knee stress on stairs, let the strong leg lead going up and the weaker leg lead going down Plan ahead. Simplify and organize your routines so you minimize movements that are difficult or painful. Keep items you need for cooking, cleaning, or hobbies near where they are needed (even if that means multiple sets of cleaning supplies, one for your kitchen and each bathroom, for example) Take advantage of labor-saving devices and adaptive aids. Simple gadgets and devices can make it easier to perform daily activities such as cooking, gardening, or even getting dressed. Long-handled grippers, for example, are designed to grasp and retrieve out-of-reach objects. Rubber grips can help you get a better handle on faucets, pens, toothbrushes, and silverware. Pharmacies, medical supply stores, and online vendors stock a variety of aids for people with arthritis Ask for help. People with arthritis often worry about the possibility of growing dependent on others. But only a very small percentage of people with arthritis become severely disabled. Still, the emotional burdens of arthritis can be considerable. Educate family members and friends about how arthritis affects you, and don’t be afraid to ask for help when you need it reference http://www.health.harvard.edu
  4. five ways to use less salt Salt is essential to the body. The sodium in salt helps transmit nerve impulses and contract muscle fibers. It also works with potassium to balance fluid levels in in the body. But you need only a tiny amount of salt to do this — less than one-tenth of a teaspoon per day. The average American gets nearly 20 times that much.l The body can generally rid itself of excess sodium. In some people, though, consuming extra sodium makes the body hold on to water. This increases the amount of fluid flowing through blood vessels, which can increase blood pressure.l Controlling Your Blood Pressure An alarming one in three American adults has high blood pressure. Known medically as hypertension, many people don't even know they have it, because high blood pressure has no symptoms or warning signs. But when elevated blood pressure is accompanied by abnormal cholesterol and blood sugar levels, the damage to your arteries, kidneys, and heart accelerates exponentially. Fortunately, high blood pressure is easy to detect and treat. In the Special Health Report, Controlling Your Blood Pressure, find out how to keep blood pressure in a healthy range simply by making lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, increasing activity, and eating more healthfully.t Most of the salt that Americans consume comes from prepared and processed foods. The leading culprits include snack foods, sandwich meats, smoked and cured meats, canned juices, canned and dry soups, pizza and other fast foods, and many condiments, relishes, and sauces — for starters. But enough of it comes from the salt shaker at home that it's worth finding alternatives. Here are five ways to cut back on sodium when cooking or at the table:t Use spices and other flavor enhancers. Add flavor to your favorite dishes with spices, dried and fresh herbs, roots (such as garlic and ginger), citrus, vinegars, and wine. From black pepper, cinnamon, and turmeric to fresh basil, chili peppers, and lemon juice, these flavor enhancers create excitement for the palate — and with less sodium.j Go nuts for healthy fats in the kitchen. Using the right healthy fats — from roasted nuts and avocados to olive, canola, soybean, and other oils — can add a rich flavor to foods, minus the salt.l Sear, sauté, and roast. Searing or sautéing foods in a pan builds flavor. Roasting brings out the natural sweetness of many vegetables and the taste of fish and chicken. If you do steam or microwave some dishes, perk them up with a finishing drizzle of flavorful oil and a squeeze of citrus.l Get your whole grains from sources other than bread. Even whole-grain bread, though a healthier choice than white, can contain considerable sodium. Bread contains quite a bit of salt — not just for flavor, but to ensure that the dough rises properly. You can skip that extra salt when you look for whole grains outside of baking. For example, instead of toast with breakfast, cook up steel-cut oats, farro, or other intact whole grains with fresh or dried fruit.l Know your seasons, and, even better, your local farmer. Shop for raw ingredients with maximum natural flavor, thereby avoiding the need to add as much (if any) sodium. Shop for peak-of-season produce from farmers' markets and your local supermarket.l Controlling Your Blood Pressure Featured content:t Blood pressure basics Types of hypertension Are you at risk for high blood pressure How high blood pressure harms your health Diagnosing high blood pressure ... and more reference:l http://www.health.harvard.edu
  5. Discover the proven self-help techniques you can use to lessen stress and bring calm back to your life Stress constantly creeps into our lives. It can come from the frustration of a traffic jam or a confrontation with a partner. Stress can be spurred by money worries or spiked by a sudden health scare. It can exact a toll upon you — physically, emotionally, and psychologically. Stress is a fact of life. But you determine how it affects your life. You can counteract the damaging effects of stress by calling upon your body’s rich potential for self-healing. Stress Management, a Special Health Report from Harvard Medical School, is packed with strategies you can use to rein in the runaway changes unleashed by stress. These proven techniques can help you repel the consuming effects of stress and reclaim and restore inner peace. The report will show you how to elicit — at will — the relaxation response. This is the simple, calming opposite of the stress response. And it will introduce you to various methods of producing this response — from focused breathing to tai chi and repetitive prayer. Stress Management will help you explore cognitive restructuring, a strategy to change the way you look at things. You’ll find how to challenge negative thoughts and avoid jumping to conclusions. And, if you’ve heard about the power of visualization and meditation, but don't know where to start, the report will show you. The report will help you identify the warning signs of stress. It will alert you to the dynamic roles of nutrition and social support. It will give you tips for coping with caregiver stress, work-related stress, and stress from conflict with others. And you’ll find three rewarding mental exercises that boost happiness. Plus, a special section will show you how to take the sting out of ten common stressors — everything from being late to feeling burned out. You’ll be briefed on relaxation techniques to use when you have only ten minutes — or even just one. You’ll also get suggestions for communicating better, for learning to nurture yourself, and using mindfulness to reduce workday stress reference http://www.health.harvard.edu
  6. Dealing with diabetic emergencies With proper care, most people with diabetes can achieve and maintain blood glucose levels as close to normal as safely possible. But people with the disease need to be wary of the severe problems that can occur on both ends of the spectrum. Hypoglycemia, or too-low blood sugar, is a side effect of some glucose-lowering medications. In rare situations, blood sugar can also escalate to a dangerously high level, causing problems such as ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is a potential problem for anyone who takes insulin or several other glucose-lowering medications, including sulfonylureas or glinides, either alone or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs. Hypoglycemia is far less common among people with type 2 diabetes than among those with type 1, but it can be serious when it occurs. Blood sugar may become abnormally low in people who take too high of a dose of medication in the setting of exercise, too little food or carbohydrates, a missed or delayed meal, or a combination of these factors. As you pursue near normal blood sugar control more aggressively, your risk for hypoglycemia increases It’s important that people with diabetes, and those who live and work with them, learn to recognize and understand hypoglycemia so it can be prevented and treated before it becomes a life-threatening crisis Spotting the signs of hypoglycemia Many experts associate hypoglycemic reactions with blood sugar levels below 60 mg/dL, but it’s difficult to pinpoint the level at which hypoglycemia symptoms will affect an individual because each person responds differently. For instance, your blood sugar might fall below 40 mg/dL without causing any symptoms, while someone else might feel symptoms coming on when his or her blood glucose falls below 70 mg/dL Over time, the symptoms may become subtler. You may or may not experience palpitations sweating anxiety fuzzy thinking hypoglycemia unawareness, in which a person experiences no warning symptoms even when their blood sugar levels are very low Low blood sugar usually sets off alarms in many organ systems. The brain, which relies on glucose to function, is especially sensitive to sugar deprivation. The first signs of hypoglycemia resemble those of an anxiety attack because a decline in blood sugar stimulates the autonomic nervous system. Epinephrine (also known as adrenaline) is secreted, causing sweating, nervousness, trembling, palpitations, a fast heart rate, lightheadedness, and often hunger. The release of epinephrine is a corrective response to hypoglycemia not only because it signals you to eat, but also because it prompts your liver to make more sugar If hypoglycemia is not treated rapidly, it may get worse and affect brain function, leading to blurred vision slurred speech confusion other behavior that resembles drunkenness, such as belligerence or silliness A fur ther drop in blood sugar levels or failure to treat the condition promptly may result in loss of consciousness, seizures, and even death. An episode of hypoglycemia while driving can cause a serious car accident, especially if you postpone treating yourself, thinking you can make it to your destination. Don’t risk it: stop and get something sweet right away if you don’t have anything handy in your car Not everyone experiences all these symptoms, and it can be hard to tell the difference between hypoglycemia and anxiety over a problem at work or an argument with your spouse. In addition, beta blockers (used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease) can mask the early symptoms and result in more severe hypoglycemia. That’s why doctors often look for alternatives to beta blockers in people with diabetes. Alcohol can also mask the symptoms of hypoglycemia, which is one reason it must be used cautiously. If hypoglycemia occurs during sleep, the only clues may be damp pajamas (from sweating), vivid nightmares, or a nagging headache on awakening. It’s important to be attuned to these early signs and to know what blood sugar levels set off hypoglycemia Preventing hypoglycemia is preferable to treating it. If you’re taking insulin, you may experience hypoglycemia at some time, most likely because of a change in eating patterns, such as missing a meal. But if you engage in binge drinking of alcohol, have irregular eating patterns, or have liver or kidney disease, you are at particular risk Treating low blood sugar While it’s a good idea to test your blood glucose level if you suspect you’re having a hypoglycemic reaction, often there just isn’t time. Once you start to feel strange, don’t put off treatment. Follow the 15/15 rule, as explained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine.e Eat 15 grams of carbohydrate and wait 15 minutes. The following foods will provide about 15 grams of carbohydrate:e 3glucose tablets Half cup (4 ounces) of fruit juice or regular soda A glass of milk 6or7 hard candies 2tablespoons of raisins 1tablespoon of sugar After the carbohydrate is eaten, wait about 15 minutes for the sugar to get into your blood. If you do not feel better within 15 minutes, more carbohydrate can be consumed. Your blood sugar should be checked to make sure it has come within a safe range Diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) — in which blood sugar levels soar very high — is far more common among people with type 1 diabetes than those with type 2. It develops when insulin falls to a critically low level, often when you miss insulin injections or use too little insulin during a period of illness or unusual stress. Illness and stress increase your vulnerability because the hormones released in these situations oppose the action of insulin. Unless insulin doses are maintained or increased, insulin insufficiency develops When your insulin levels are very low, cells can’t absorb glucose from the bloodstream to make energy. Instead, they begin to break down stored fat. A natural byproduct of this fat breakdown are acids called ketones. When they reach high levels, the body can’t metabolize them fast enough. As a result, the ketones accumulate in your bloodstream, making your blood acidic. At the same time, your kidneys excrete large amounts of glucose-rich urine, causing dehydration Symptoms of DKA include increased thirst frequent urination rapid breathing nausea, vomiting fatigue abdominal pain “fruity” breath As the condition progresses, blood pressure falls because of dehydration. Confusion and even coma can develop if blood sugar levels become extremely high. Because the warning signs often develop over several days, regular blood glucose tests can alert you when levels are becoming high enough to increase the risk for DKA. You can also detect the development of DKA by monitoring ketones in your urine. This test is easily performed at home using a urine dipstick for ketones. Urine ketones should be checked whenever your blood sugar levels become unusually high or when you’ve developed a new illness, especially one with gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. Call your doctor immediately if your urine test shows more than a moderate level of ketones (30 to 40 mg/dL). Treatment involves insulin, fluids, and electrolytes (minerals such as sodium, potassium, and chloride) given through a vein. Untreated, DKA can be fatal Hyperosmolar coma In rare cases, blood glucose levels may rise to extremely high levels (over 800 mg/dL), leading to severe dehydration and confusion or coma. This most commonly occurs in elderly people when blood sugar increases because of an impaired ability to recognize thirst, illness, or stress. If the person affected can’t respond by drinking more liquids — either because he or she doesn’t feel thirsty (not uncommon in the elderly) or because neurological damage (for example, after a stroke) makes drinking fluids difficult — blood sugar levels can skyrocket As the problem worsens, confusion, sleepiness, and seizures follow dehydration, resulting in a condition called hyperosmolar coma. This rare condition, which occurs most often in elderly people with type 2 diabetes, can be fatal and requires hospitalization, often in an intensive care unit. Again, careful glucose monitoring and strict adherence to your treatment program can help you prevent hyperosmolar coma reference http://www.health.harvard.edu
  7. Fight Fibromyalgia Millions of Americans are now suffering from the daily struggle of fibromyalgia — the muscle aches and tenderness...the fatigue...the joint stiffness...and the frustrating “fibro-fog” that clouds our ability to think and concentrate But perhaps the most maddening part of the disease is that many doctors actually dismiss this condition, sometimes even suggesting that “it’s all in your head” The truth is that fibromyalgia is a REAL illness. And while there is no cure for it, there are effective, straightforward ways to diagnose it and research-proven treatments that can help you feel better and live a full, active life Powerful help is now just minutes away Click the above button now, and in 5 minutes you can have the answers you’ve been looking for in this practical guide. For example a. “What causes fibromyalgia?” Doctors believe that the condition is most likely caused by brain activity that essentially “turns up the volume” on nerve responses. Thankfully, as you can soon discover, there are ways to dial down the pain to more manageable levels b. “Is there a simple way to diagnose it?” YES! While fibromyalgia can be a challenge to diagnose because it mimics other conditions, there is a simple questionnaire to help you and your doctor diagnose fibromyalgia. Check it out: It takes less than 10 minutes to complete and could start you on the road to relief c. “What treatments are available to help free me from fibromyalgia’s grip?” While many drugs are used to treat fibromyalgia, beware: only three medications are now approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Find out which drugs work to help ease the pain, which ones do not d.“Are there any non-drug alternatives that offer relief?” YES! Discover easy-does-it exercises that can help but won’t make you hurt. See how to get better quality sleep to help fight off fatigue. And find out about cognitive behavioral therapy — the powerful treatment proven effective by functional MRI scans e.“Which doctors can offer the best help?” Finding an empathetic doctor who Powerful help is now just minutes away Click the above button now, and in 5 minutes you can have the answers you’ve been looking for in this practical guide. For example f.“What causes fibromyalgia?” Doctors believe that the condition is most likely caused by brain activity that essentially “turns up the volume” on nerve responses. Thankfully, as you can soon discover, there are ways to dial down the pain to more manageable levels g.“Is there a simple way to diagnose it?” YES! While fibromyalgia can be a challenge to diagnose because it mimics other conditions, there is a simple questionnaire to help you and your doctor diagnose fibromyalgia. Check it out: It takes less than 10 minutes to complete and could start you on the road to relief h.“What treatments are available to help free me from fibromyalgia’s grip?” While many drugs are used to treat fibromyalgia, beware: only three medications are now approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Find out which drugs work to help ease the pain, which ones do not i.“Are there any non-drug alternatives that offer relief?” YES! Discover easy-does-it exercises that can help but won’t make you hurt. See how to get better quality sleep to help fight off fatigue. And find out about cognitive behavioral therapy — the powerful treatment proven effective by functional MRI scans j.“Which doctors can offer the best help?” Finding an empathetic doctor who You’re just a few clicks away from the practical answers you need If you are suffering from the pain, exhaustion, frustration and “fibro-fog” of fibromyalgia, don’t wait another moment. Act now...help is just a few minutes away reference http://www.health.harvard.edu
  8. شما چطور استخوانهایتان را تقویت می کنید؟ ممکن است هیچ ایده ای در اینباره نداشته باشید - وقتی شما روی پنجره ای که گیر کرده فشار می آورید یا برای برداشتن چیزی که افتاده خم می شوید ، یک استخوان می شکند. یا بدتر از آن، لغزیدن غیر منتظره از لبه جدول پیاده رو یا لغزیدن روی سیم سیار . برای اینکه تعادل بهتری بدست آورید: ورزشهای ساده برای بهتر شدن مقاومت و جلوگیری از افتادن تعادل بهتر آشکار می کند که چطور شما می توانید جلوی زمین خوردن را بواسطه بهبودی تعادلتان و کاهش مرگ و میر بگیرد. تعادل بهتر: ورزشهای ساده در بهبود مقاومت و جلوگیری از زمین خوردن به شما ساختارهای گام به گام برای سادگی، تمرینات مؤثر که حالت یا وضعیت را بهبود خواهد داد، افزایش قدرت و سرعت عضلات، تقویت رفلکسها، توسعه انعطاف پذیری، و استحکام درونی شما می دهد. یکی از اهداف حیاتی مدیریت پوکی استخوان جلوگیری از شکستگی هایی است که می تواند بطور مستقل تهدید کننده باشد، تحرک را کم کند یا از بین ببرد، راه انداز افسردگی باشد، و موجب درد، ناتوانی و حتی مرگ شود. اینجا ده گام ساده که می تواند استخوانهای شما را محافظت کند آورده شده است. 1. آشفتگی های طبقه تان را مرتب کنید و هیچ چیزی که می تواند به راحتی موجب لغزیدن شما روی آن شود، شامل سیمهای سست، کابل، و انداختن قالیچه ها را باقی نگذارید. 2. مواظب راه پله ها، ورودی ها باشید، و پیاده رو ها را بخوبی روشن کنید، و لامپ هایی در اتاق خواب و حمام نصب کنید. 3. فورا خرده ریزهایی که ریخته شده را پاک کنید. 4. کفشهای پلاستیکی را برای ایجاد اصطکاک بهتر بپوشید. از راه رفتن با جوراب اجتناب کنید. 5. برای داشتن اقلام از پریدن یا کشش اجتناب کنید. چیزهایی را که اغلب استفاده می کنید در کابینتهایی که دسترسی به آن آسان استفاده کنید. همچنین شما ممکن است برای بدست آوردن اقلامی که دسترسی به آنها سخت است ابزارهایی برای گرفتن یا کشیدن آنها را بخرید و از آنها استفاده کنید. 6. به وان خود میله هایی اضافه کنید، و از کف پوشهایی که سر نمی خورند برای کف حمام استفاده کنید. 7. هنگامی که حیوانات خانگی در نزدیکی شما هستند مراقب باشید. رفت و آمد زیادی یک حیوان خانگی، که اغلب سگ یا گربه است، از علل شایع زمین خوردن است. 8. با پزشک خود در مورد اینکه آیا داروهایی که مصرف می کنید ممکن است موجب سرگیجه، تغییر تعادل و یا سایر عوارض جانبی شود که ممکن است باعث بیشتر شدن احتمال زمین خوردن شما شود. 9. فعالیتهای جسمانی از قبیل تای چی یا یوگا، که می توانند تعادل شما، هماهنگی، و تقویت عضلات شما شوند را پیدا کنید. 10. بینایی تان را مرتب چک کنید و عینک و یا لنزهای تماسی تجویزی خود را به روز کنید و از آنها مراقبت کنید .اطلاعات بیشتر در وب سایت مرکز جامع روانشناسی و مشاوره سیمیا اطلاعات بیشتر در وب سایت کلینیک تخصصی روانشناسی کودک و نوجوان منبع: www.health.harvard.edu
  9. پنج راه برای اینکه حافظه ای قوی داشته باشید شیوه ای که شما زندگی می کنید، چیزی که می خورید یا می نوشید، و چگونگی برخوردتان با بدنتان همانطور که روی سلامت جسم خوب زیستن شما اثر گذار است به همان اندازه روی حافظه تان نیز مؤثر است. در اینجا پنج چیزی که شما هر روز می توانید با آن ذهنتان را محافظت کنید و بدنتان را قوی نگه دارید آورده شده است. استرس خود را مدیریت کنید: ضرب آهنگ مداوم و پایدار استرسهای روزانه مانند فشارهای ناشی از کار های ضرب الاجل یا مهلت دار یا بحث و جدل های جزئی قطعا می تواند موجب حواسپرتی یا تأثیر بر توانایی شما برای تمرکز در به بیاد آوردن شود. اگر شما ساز و کاری برای مدیریت کردن استرس خود ندارید، محافظت از حافظه تان می تواند یکی از دلایل برای داشتن آن باشد بیشتر از نیمی از بالغین نگران بهبود حافظه در سن 60 سالگی هستند. بهرحال بخشی از حافظه با افزایش سن از بین می رود که معمولا نشانه یک مشکل جدی مانند آلزایمر نیست، اما نتایج تغییرات طبیعی در ساختار و عملکرد مغز را نشان می دهند. این گزارش تغییرات طبیعی مرتبط با سن و سایر علل جدی کاهش یا فقدان حافظه – و اینکه چطور این دو را از هم تشخیص دهیم - را توصیف می کند. داشتن یک خواب شبانه خوب. کسانی که شب خواب خوبی ندارند نسبت به آنهایی که شبها خواب کاملی دارند، بیشتر دچار فراموشی می شوند. خواب شبانه خوب برای تثبیت حافظه ضروری می باشد. شایعترین علت خواب کم بی خوابی است - مشکل در به خواب رفتن و خوابیدن. متاسفانه، بیشتر داروهایی که برای بیخوابی استفاده می شود می تواند موجب تخریب حافظه و تخریب عملکرد عمومی مغز شود. به همین دلیل بهتر است ابتدا عادات خوابتان را بهبود ببخشید و تنها اگر این مراحل کمکی به شما نکرد از دارو استفاده کنید. اگر نیاز به کمک برای خواب دارید، کمترین دوز دارو را فقط برای زمانی کوتاه که نیاز به خواب دارید استفاده کنید. اگر سیگاری هستید، ترک کنید. قطعا،گفتن آن راحتتر از انجام دادنش هست، اما اگر نیاز به انگیزه بیشتری دارید، بدانید که سیگاری ها خیلی بیشتر از کسانی که سیگار نمی کشند دچار مشکلات حافظه که با سن مرتبط هست می شوند. کسانی که بیشتر از دو پاکت سیگار در روز در سالهای میانی زندگی می کشند دو برابر بیشتر از کسانی که سیگار نمی کشند در سن پیری خطر رشد دمانس در آنها وجود دارد. بهرحال، کسانی که سیگار را در سالهای میانی عمر ترک می کنند و کسانی که آنهایی که کمتر از یک پاکت سیگار در روز می کشند میزان خطر ابتلا به دمانس در آنها یکسان است در مقابل کسانی که اصلا سیگار نمی کشند. اگر الکل می نوشید، در حد متوسط بنوشید. نوشیدن میزان زیادی الکل خطر فقدان حافظه و دمانس را افزایش می دهد. افراد الکلی، به سختی تکالیف مربوط به حافظه کوتاه مدت را انجام می دهند، بطور مثال در بخاطر سپردن فهرستها مشکل دارند. نوع دیگر فقدان حافظه که با مصرف الکل در ارتباط است سندرم کورساکف نام دارد. در این حالت، کمبود دراز مدت ویتامین ب یک با اثرات سمی الکل در مغز ترکیب می شود و می تواند باعث اختلالات ناگهانی و فراموشی چشمگیر شود. در برخی از این موارد فقدان حافظه دائمی است، اما اگر به تازگی گرفتار این موضوع شده باشند، می تواند تاحدی موجب درجات معکوسی در بروز مشکل در حافظه شود. مغزتان را از جراحت / آسیب محافظت کنید. ضربه به سر یکی از علل مهم فقدان حافظه و افزایش خطر رشد دمانس باشد. همیشه از وسایل ایمنی مناسب در طی فعالیتهایی که نیاز به سرعت بالا دارند و در ورزشها استفاده کنید. در هنگام رانندگی با وسایل نقلیه موتوری کمربند ایمنی را ببندید. تصادف با ماشین بیشترین میزان ضربه را به مغز وارد می کند و بستن کمربند ایمنی به میزان زیادی موجب کاهش بروز آسیبهای شدید به مغز می شود. وقتی دوچرخ سواری می کنید، موتور سیکلت می رانید، اسکیت بازی می کنید و اسکی می کنید از کلا ه ایمنی استفاده کنید. منبع: سایت روان شناسی سلامت دانشگاه هاروارد www.health.harvard.edu
  10. مقاله حاضر بر اساس تحقیقات انجام شده در دانشگاه برگن نوروژ می باشد. در این مقاله در مورد ویژگی های پایه آزمایش شنوایی دایکوتیک و موارد مرتبط به آن صحبت می شود. برای کسب اطلاعات بیشتر متن کامل را مطالعه بفرمایید. گوش دادن دایکوتیک.pdf
  11. به توانایی تغییر ساختار و عملکرد مغز پلاستیسیتی مغز گفته می شود. امروزه مشخص شده که تجربه تغییرات متعددی در مغز ایجاد می کند که این تغییرات آناتومیک در مغز با تغییرات رفتاری در آزمودنی ها همبستر هستند. برای کسب اطلاعات بیشتر در این زمینه متن کامل مقاله را دانلود و مطالعه بفرمایید. پلاستیسیتی.pdf
  12. سلولهای مویی گوش داخلی به آسیب ناشی از عوامل مختلفی مثل سن، نقائص ژنتیک و عوامل محیطی مثل نویزهای با شدت خیلی بالا و یا داروهای شیمی درمانی حساس می باشند. نتایج صدمه به این ناحیه مشکلات شنوایی و یا تعادلی دائمی می باشد. برای کسب اطلاعات بیشتر در این زمینه می توانید متن کامل مقاله را بصورت رایگان دانلود بفرمائید. بازسازی سلول مویی.pdf
  13. نورون های آیینه ای گروه خاصی از نورون های بینایی-حرکتی هستند و در ناحیهF5 قشر پره موتور میمون کشف شده اند. این نورون های زمانی که میمون یا انسان فعالیتی را انجام می دهد و همچنین زمانی که انجام همان فعالیت توسط دیگران را مشاهده می کند، پاسخ می دهند. مقاله حاضر، به آخرین یافته ها در زمینه خصوصیات عملکردی نورون های آیینه ای شنوایی می پردازد. نورون های آیینه ای شنوایی.pdf
  14. طبق اظهارات مقاله حاضر اطلاعات در زمینه حملات تشنجی کودکان اندک است ولی بهرحال احتمال آن می رود که این کودکان مستعد ابتلای به بیماری صرع شوند.در این مقاله درباره صرع و تشنج در کودکان به اختصار توضیح داده شده و در خصوص نشانگان و علائم حملات تشنجی تکرار شوند بحث شده است. تشنج در کودکان.pdf
  15. وارد کردن یک ژن به داخل یک سلول بدن برای استفاده از اثرات درمانی آن ژن درمانی نامیده می شود. که می تواند نویدی برای درمان تعدادی از بیماریهای سیستم عصبی باشد. جهت دستیابی به مطالب بیشتر در این زمینه می توانید متن کامل مقاله را دانلود و مطالعه کنید. ژن درمانی.pdf